Climate changes in recent years have brought ecological alert. To reduce energy reliance and lower costs,development of renewable energy, particularly of solar technology, has attracted increasing attention.A typical solar photovoltaic cell applies P/N type semiconducting materials to form two(positive and negative) electrodes.
1. Electricity can be extracted from the solar cell by connecting to its positive and negative electrodes.
2. Upon absorbing the photon energy supplied by sunlight, electrons and holes inside semiconducting materials are excited from their current atomic orbital and travel through the cell till they reach an electrode.
3. Solar energy can then be generated and stored via photo-thermal conversion (e.g. solar collectors) and photovoltaic conversion (e.g. photovoltaic modules).